Since the mid-20th century, more than 2.5 million Sudanese have been killed in brutal conflicts between the north and south, in Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and in other regions. Although the north-south civil war ended in 2005, ultimately leading to South Sudan’s independence in 2011, violence has continued within Sudan and civilians remain at risk. Since the removal of former President Omar al-Bashir in a military coup in April 2019 levels of violence against civilians have continued to increase. Our Early Warning Project considers Sudan to be one of the highest-risk countries for a new mass killing in 2020–21, ranking at 13th highest-risk among 162 countries. View our resources on the 2003–05 genocide and on the humanitarian crisis on the border with South Sudan.